Saudi students' experiences learning English in English as foreign and second language settings
AbstractThis study aims to shed light on the reasons that influence Saudi students’ learning experiences, self-esteem, and attitudes in English language education in the EFL context as linked to their language proficiency. However, Saudi students’ experiences differed in the ESL context, as the study’s findings revealed. This study was conducted to understand the students’ perspectives about their different language learning experiences in ESL and EFL settings. The participants in this study were ten students who had learned English in both EFL and ESL classrooms, which gave the study a clear understanding of the English language learning circumstances in both environments. A qualitative approach was used in this study to enable the researcher to discover the participants’ English language learning experiences and to assist the researcher to learn extensively about those experiences. Moreover, the data analysis revealed that the students’ experiences were influenced by certain factors in the EFL context. The data findings showed that the Saudi students’ experiences in EFL differed from those in ESL in terms of their self-esteem, attitude. The students reported that each learning context contributed to their learning in a different manner. EFL contributed to their basic English to some extent, regardless of its accompanying negative factors; however, ESL contributed more effectively to their language acquisition, with positive factors that they found more relevant to their success in the language.
Abdel-Rahman, A. (2009). Attitudes of Jordanian college students towards learning English as a foreign language. College Student Journal, 43(2), #682-694. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/openview/c2c5abe35c9dfb452e002ed87c408117/1?pq-origsite=gscholar
Abidin, M. J. Z., Pour-Mohammad, M., & Alzwari, H. (2012). EFL students’ attitudes towards learning English language: The case of Libyan secondary school students. Asian Social Science, 8(2), 119-134. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msvu.ca/ login? url= http:// search. Proquest .com/docview/925804413
Adaleteinsdottir, K. (2004). Teachers’ behavior and practices in the Classroom. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 48(1), 95-114. doi:10.1080/0031383032000149869
Aldarwish, S. (2006). An investigation of the teachers’ perceptions of the English language curriculum in Kuwaiti elementary schools (Doctoral Dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3218972)
Alfares, N. (2014). Using the textbook to promotes thinking skills in intermediate schools EFL classroom Saudi Arabia and an exploration of teachers’ behaviours and perceptions. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://theses.gla.ac.uk/5566
Al-Haq, F. A., & Smadi, O. (1996). The status of English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from 1940-1990. In J. Fishman, A. W. Courad & A. Rubal-Lopez (Eds.), Post-imperial English: Status change in former British and American colonies, 1940-1990, Vol.72. Contributions to the sociology of language (pp. 457-484). Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Al-Hazmi, S. (2003). EFL teacher preparation programs in Saudi Arabia: Trends and challenges. TESOL Quarterly, 37(2), 341-344. doi: 10.2307/3588509.
Al-Hazmi, S. (2015). Current issues in English language education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Modern Languages, 17(1), 129-150. Retrieved from http://e-journal.um.edu.my/public/article-view.php?id=8054
Allan, G. (2003). A critique of using grounded theory as a research method. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 2 (1), 1-10.doi=10.1.1.464.1384
Al-Nasser, A. (2015). Problems of English language acquisition in Saudi Arabia: an exploratory cum-remedial study. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(8), 1612-1619. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca/docview/1706203540?accountid=12617
Al-Omrani, A. H. (2008). Perceptions and attitudes of Saudi ESL and EFL students toward native and non-native English-speaking teachers (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest dissertations and Theses database. (UMI NO.3303340)
Alsegahayer, K. S. (2014a). The actuality, inefficiency and needs EFL teacher- preparation programs in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 3(1), 143-151. Retrieved from http://www.journals.aiac.org.au/index.php/IJALEL/article/view/1035
Al-Seghayer, K. (2005). Teaching English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: slowly but steadily. In B. Gorge (Ed.), Teaching English to the world: History, curriculum and practice (pp. 125-131). Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Al-Seghayer, K. (2014b). The four most common constraints affecting English teaching in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of English Linguistics, 4(5), 17-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.msvu.ca/10.5539/ijel.v4n5p17
Al-Seghayer, K. (2014c). The four most common constraints affecting English teaching in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of English Linguistics, 4(5), 17-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v4n5p17
Al-Zahrani, M. (2008). Saudi secondary school male students’ attitudes towards English: An exploratory study. Language and Translation, 20, 25-39. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.ca/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0, 5&q=Saudi+secondary+school+male+students+towards+english%3A+an+exploratory+study+journal+of+king+Saud+university
Al-Khairy, M. H. (2013). English as a foreign language learning demotivational factors as perceived by Saudi undergraduates. European Scientific Journal, 9(32), 365-382. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/openview/ea5a6d08d488cfe32b29f7c11d124dac/1?pq-origsite=gscholar
Asadifard, A., & Biria, R. (2013). Affective and strategy use: The relationship between EFL learners’ self-esteem and language learning strategies. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(9), 1685-1690. doi:10.4304/tpls.3.9.1685-1690
Arnett, K., & Turbull, M. (2002). Teachers’ uses of the target and first languages in second and foreign language classrooms. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 2011-218. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0267190502000119
Azorola, E. (2011). Changing reasons as reasoning changes: a narrative interview on second language classroom motivation, telecollaboration, and the learning of foreign languages. Language
Awareness, 20(3), 183-201. doi:10.1080/09658416.2011.570348
Babchuk, W. A. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. In Proceedings of the 15th Annual Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education (pp. 1-6). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED477391.pdf
Barriball, K. L., & White, A. (1994). Collecting data using a semi-structured interview: a discussion paper. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(2), 328-335. doi: 10.1111/1365—2648.ep8535505
Bartley, D. E. (1970). The importance of the attitude factor in language dropout: A preliminary investigation of group and sex differences. Foreign Language Annals, 3(3), 383-393. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msvu.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca/docview/1311693438?accountid=12617
Bartram, B. (2010). Attitudes to modern foreign language learning: Insights from comparative education. Bloomsbury Publishing. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Baten, M., Kyndt, E. Struyven, K., & Docy, F. (2010). Using student-centered learning environment to stimulate deep approaches to learning: Factors encouraging or discouraging their effectiveness. Educational Research Review, 5(3), 243-260. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2010.06.001
Bernaus, M., & Gardner, R. C. (2008). Teacher motivation strategies, student perceptions, student motivation, and English achievement. The Modern Language Journal, 92(3), 387-401. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25173065
Bhaskar, C. V., Soundiraraj, S. (2013). A study on change in the attitude of students towards English language learning. English language teaching, 6(5), 111-116. Retrieved from http://search . proquest.com/docview/ 1473188703? Accounted=12617
Brock, P., Brekelmaus, M., & Wubbels, T. (2004). Interpersonal teacher behavior and student outcomes. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15(3-4), 407-442. doi: 10.1080.09243450512331383262
Broughton, G., Brumfit, C., Flavell, R., & Hill, P. (1980). Teaching English as a foreign language. New York London: Routledge.
Brown, H., D. (1980). Principals of language learning and teaching. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 10(3), 400-402. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S027226310000752X
Butler, Y. G. (2004). What level of English proficiency do elementary school teachers need to attain to teach EFL? Case study from Korea, Taiwan and Japan. TESOL Quarterly, 38(2), 245-278. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3588380?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Bursztyn, L., & Jenseu, R. (2015). How does peer pressure affect educational investments? The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130, 1329-1367. doi: 10.1093/qje/qjv012
Chalak, A., & Kassaian, Z. (2010). Motivation and attitudes of Iranian undergraduate EFL students towards learning English. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 10(2), 37-56. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca/ehost/detail/detail?sid=7dcbc791-91a4-4573-aa29
Chancon, C. T. (2005). Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as foreign language teachers’ in middle schools in Venezuela. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(3), 257-227. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2005.01.001
Chen, J., Brown, G. T., Hattie, J. A., & Millward, P. (2012). Teachers’conceptions of excellent teaching and its relationships to self-reported teaching practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(7), 936-947. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2012.04.006
Connor, J. M., Poyrazli, S., Ferrer-Wreder, L., & Grahame, K. M. (2004). The relation of age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors to self-esteem among students in nonmainstream schools. Adolescence, 39(155), 457-473. Retrieved from
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluation criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3-21. doi: 10.1007/BF00988593
Cook, V. (2001). Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(3), 402-423. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2014). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Sage Publication. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Covington, M. J. (1989). Self-esteem and Failure in school: Analysis and policy implications. In A. Mecca, N. Smelser & J. Vasconcellos (Eds.), The social importance of self-esteem (pp 72-124). Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Creswell, J. (2014). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Washington DC, United States: Sage Publication.
Cummins, J. (1994). Knowledge, power, and identity in teaching English as a second language. In F. Genses (Ed.), Educating second language children: The whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community (pp. 33-43). Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Daniels, E. (2010). Creating motivating learning environments: What we can learn from researchers and students. English Journal, 100(1), 25-29. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20787687
Davis, H. A. (2003). Conceptualizing the role and influence of student-teacher relationships on children’s social and cognitive development. Educational Psychologist, 38(4), 207-234. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=19b8bc33-f8eb-4a6f-bf67-964085ed2a64%40sessionmgr102&vid=1&hid=129
De La Campa, J. C., & Nassaji, H. (2009). The amount, purpose, and reasons for using L1 in L2 classrooms. Foreign Language Annals, 42(4), 742-759. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-9720.2009.01052.x
Deci, E. L. (1972). Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement and inequity. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 22(1), 113-120. doi: !0.1037/h003255
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
Dehbozorgi, E. (2012). Effects of attitude towards language learning and risk taking on EFL students’ proficiency. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(2), 41-48.
Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). Strategies qualitative inquiry. Los Angeles, United States: Sage Publication.
Deniz, S. (2010). Student teachers' evaluation of the motivational strategies used in foreign language teaching. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 38(9), 1269-1286.
Diller, K. (1978). The language teaching controversy. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.
Dinius, S. (2013). Malaysian student demotivation in learning English: The impact of conscientiousness. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://library.ncu.edu/diss/GetAbstract/3609
Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31, 117-135. doi:10.1017/S026144480001315X
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, N. J.: L. Erlbaum.
Dornyei, Z. (2007). Creating a motivating classroom environment. International Handbook of English Language Teaching, 15, 710-731. doi: 10.1007/978-387-46302-8_47
Duff, P. A., & Polio, C. G. (1990). How much foreign language is there in the foreign language classroom? Modern Language Journal, 74(2), 145-166. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=ca736b72-695c-4ddc-8268-8fbd56cdcb95%40sessionmgr102&vid=4&hid=102
Elliot, A. J., & Dweck, C. S. (2005). Handbook of competence and motivation. GuilFord Publications. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Elyas, T. (2008). The attitude and impact of the American English as a global language within the Saudi education system. Naivtas-Royal, 2(1), 28-48. Retrieved from http://www.novitasroyal.org/elyas.pdf
Elyas, T., & Picard, M. (2010). Saudi Arabian educational history: impacts on English language teaching. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middles Eastern Issues, 3(2), 136-154. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17537981011047961
Entwistle, N., & Tait, H. (1990). Approaches to learning, evaluations of teaching, and preferences for contrasting academic environment. Higher Education, 19(2), 169-194. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00137106
Etwistle, N. & Peterson, E. (2004). Conception of learning and knowledge in higher education: relationships with study behaviour and influences of learning environments. International Journal of Education Research, 41(6), 407-428. doi: 10.1016j.ijer.2005.08.009
Falout, J., Elwood, J., & Hood, M. (2009). Demotivation: Affective states and learning outcomes. System, 37(3), 403-417. doi:10.1016/j.system.2009.03.004.
Faraser, B. J., & Walberg, H. J. (2005). Research on teacher –student relationships and learning environments: context, retrospect and prospect. International Journal of Educational Research, 43(1-2), 103-109. doi:10.1016j.ijer.2006.03.001
Fareh, S. (2010). Challenges of teaching English in the Arab world: why can’t EFL programs deliver as expected? Social and Behaviour Sciences, 2(2), 3600-3604. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03559
Faruk, S. (2013). English language teaching in Saudi Arabia: A world system perspective. Scientific Bulletin of the Politehnica University of
Timişoara Transactions on Modern Languages, 12(2-2), 73-80. Retrieved from http://www.cls.upt.ro/files/marianagy/SITE/Buletinul%20Stiintific/06%20Farouk.pdf
Ferris, D. R. (1997). The influence of teacher commentary on student revision. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 315-339. doi: 10.2307/3588049
Fleder, R. M., & Henriques, E. R. (1995). Learning and teaching styles in foreign language and second language acquisition. Foreign Language Annals, 28(1), 21-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-9720.1995.tb00767.x
Fraser, B. J. (1998). Classroom environment instruments: Development, validity and applications. Learning Environments Research, 1(1), 7-34. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1009932514731#page-1
Gardner, R. C. (2001). Language learning motivation: the student, the teacher, and the researcher. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 6(1), 1-18. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED464495.pdf
Gardner, R. C. (2007). Motivation and second language acquisition. Porta Linguarum, 8, 9-20 Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10481/31616
Gencilter, B. (2009). Effects of technology on motivation in EFL classrooms. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 10(4) 136-158. Retrieved from http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/tojde/article/view/5000102628/5000095725
Ghavamnia, M., & Ketabi, S. (2013). Voices from the voiceless: Iranian EFL students’ attitudes toward English, Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 102-114. Retrieved from http//dx.doi.org/10.1080/117501229.2013.849708
Gielen, S., Peeters, E., Pochy, F., Onghena, P., & Struyven, K. (2010). Improving the effectiveness of peer feedback for learning and instruction. Learning and instruction 20(4), 304-315. doi: 10.1016/j.learnistruc.2009.08.007
Glaser, B. S., & Strauss, A. (1968). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Goh, S. C., & Fraser, B. J. (2000). Teacher interpersonal behavior and elementary students' outcomes. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 14(2), 216-231. doi: 10.1080/02568540009594765
Cohen, A. D. (2014). Strategies in learning and using a second language. Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=GE7JAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=strategies+in+learning+and+using+a+second+language+&ots=-FUwuMzOvm&sig=LQ5nWWuMqTA4ymeAj8dfRapya3k#v=onepage&q=strategies%20in%20learning%20and%20using%20a%20second%20language&f=false
Grabinger, R. S., & Dunlap, J. C. (1995). Rich environments for active learning: A definition. Research in Learning Technology, 3(2). Retrieved from http://www.researchinlearningtechnology.net/index.php/rlt/article/view/9606
Grindsted, A. (2005). Interactive resources used in semi-structured research interviewing. Journal of Pragmatics, 37, 1015-1035. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2005.02.011
Hannafin, M. J., & Land, S. M. (1997). The Foundations and assumptions of technology-enhanced student-centered learning environments. Instructional Science, 25(3), 167-202. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1002997414652#page-1
Harley, T. A. (2013). The psychology of language: From data to theory. Psychology Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Hassan, B. (2001). The relationship of writing: Apprehension and self-esteem to the writing quality and quantity of EFL university students. Retrieved from Mansoura University, College of Education http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED459671.pdf
Hayati, A., & Ostadian, M. (2008). The relationship between self-esteem and listening comprehension of EFL students. Published Research, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran. Retrieved from http://rms.scu.ac.ir/Users/0-1614016/Articles/Journals/The_Relationship_between_Self-esteem.pdf
Heath, H., & Cowley, S. (2004). Developing a grounded theory approach: A comparison of Glaser and Strauss. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41(2), 141-150. doi:10.1016/S0020-7489(03)00113-5
Hendrickson, J. M. (1987). Error Correction in Foreign language teaching: recent theory, research and practice. Modern Language Journal, 62(8), 387-398. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=008b10cb-fb26-4105-ac65-5b1ac9e1c666%40sessionmgr120&vid=1&hid=118
Hettiarachchi, S. (2013). English language teacher motivation Sir Lankan public schools. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(1), 1-11. doi:10.4304/jltr4.101-11
Hinkel, E. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum.
Holly, W. (1987). Self-esteem: Does it contribute to student’s academic success? School of Study Council: University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.
IlTer, B. G. (2009). Effect of technology on motivation in EFL classrooms. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 10(4), 136-158.
Jahin, J. H. (2012). The Effect of Peer Reviewing on Writing Apprehension and Essay Writing Ability of Prospective EFL Teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(11), 60-84 Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ999391
Karahan, F. (2007). Language attitudes of Turkish students towards the English and its use in Turkish context. Journal of Arts and Sciences, 1(7), 73-87 Retrieved from scholar.google.ca/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0, 5&q=language+attitude+of+turkish+students+towards+the+english+language+and+its+use+in+turkish+context
Keqiang, W. (1986). Teaching English as a foreign language in China. TESL Canada Journal, 3, 153-160. Retrieved from http://www.teslcanadajournal.ca/tesl/index.php/tesl/article/view/1001
Khan, I. A. (2011a). Challenges of teaching/earning English and management. Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research, 11(8), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialscienceresearch.org/index.php/GJHSS/article/view/220
Khan, I. A. (2011b). Learning difficulties in English: Diagnosis and pedagogy in Saudi Arabia. Educational Research, 2(7), 1248-1257. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Intakhab_Khan2/publication/234168115_Learning_difficulties_in_English_Diagnosis_and_pedagogy_in_Saudi_Arabia/links/0a85e52e3a3add5529000000.pd
Klepfer, S. J. (2015). Self-esteem and motivation effects on predicted high school graduation high school outcomes (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/394/
Kramsch, C. (2000). Second language acquisition, applied linguistics, and the teaching of foreign languages. Modern Language Journal, 84(3), 311-326. doi: 10.111é0026-7902.00071
Kyriakides, L., Greemers, B. P., & Antoniou, P. (2009). Teachers’ behaviour and student outcome: Suggestions for research on teacher training and professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 12-23. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2008.06.001
Locastro, V. (1994). Learning strategies and learning environments. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 409-414. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3587445
Legard, R., Keegan, J., & Ward, K. (2003). In-depth interviews. In J. Ritchie., & J., Lewis (Series Eds), Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers, (pp. 138-169). Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Li, D. (2006). Motivation in second language acquisition in Chinese research students in the UK. Evaluation and Research in Education, 19(1), 38-58. doi:10.1080/09500790608668324.
Li, Q. (2014). Differences in the motivation of Chinese learners of English in a foreign and second language context. System, 42, 451-461. doi:10.1016/j.system.2014.01.011.
Madu, N. E. (2010). Associations between teachers’ interpersonal behaviour, classroom learning environment and students’ outcomes (Doctoral dissertation, Curtin University). Retrieved from http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au/R?func=dbin-jump-full&local_base=gen01-era02&object_id=151667
Mahboob, A., & Elyas, T. (2014). English in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. World Englishes, 33(1), 128-142. doi: 10.1111/weng.q12073
Mallah, S. (2010). English in an Arabic environment current attitude to English among Kuwait university students. International Journal of Bilingual and Bilingualism, 3(1), 19-43. doi: 10.1080/13670050008667698
Masgoret, A ., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta–analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language earning, 53(1), 123-163. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/14679922.00212/epdf
Li, D. (1998). “It's always more difficult than you plan and imagine”: Teachers’ perceived difficulties in introducing the communicative approach in South Korea. TESOL Quarterly, 32(4), 677-703. doi:10.2307/3588000
Liu, M. (2012). Predicting effects of personality traits, self-esteem, language class risk-taking and sociability on Chinese university EFL learners' performance in English. Journal of Second Language Teaching and Research, 1(1), 30-57. Retrieved from http://clok.uclan.ac.uk/3318/
Misbah, Z., Gulikers, J., Maulance, R., & Mulder, M. (2015). Teacher interpersonal behavior and student motivation in competence-based vocational education: evidence from Indonesia. Teaching and Teacher Education, 50, 79-89. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2015.04.007
Nair, G. K. S., Setia, R., Mohamad, R., Kadir, Z. B. A., Lugman, A., Vadeveloo, T., & Ngah, H. C. (2014). Attitude, parental encouragement and perception of importance of English Language learning. Asian Social Science, 10(3), 1-8, retrieved from http://ezproxy.msvu.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1503675476?accountid=1261
Nikolov, M., & Djigunović, J. M. (2011). All shades of every color: An overview of early teaching and learning of foreign languages. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 95-119. doi:10.1017/S0267190511000183.
Noels, K. A., Clément, R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1999). Perceptions of teachers’ communicative style and students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 83(1), 23-34. doi: 10.1111/0026-7902.00003
Noels, K. A., & Clement, R. (1999). Perceptions of teachers’ communicative style and students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 83(1), 23-34. doi:10.1111/0026-7902.00003
Nogueras, C. R. (1996). Self-esteem and oral communicative language proficiency in the Puerto Rican teaching-learning process (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest dissertations and theses database. (UMI 9702771).
Nunan, D. (1990). Action research in the language classroom. In J. Richards & D. Nunan (Eds.), Second language teacher education (pp. 62-99). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ortega, L. (2014). Understanding second language acquisition. Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=30bKAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=understanding+second+langauge+acquis&ots=Ca6-ZZnNRw&sig=AG3vi50hbvHocfZmoVIHLfvEhag#v=onepage&q=understanding%20second%20langauge%20acquis&f=false
Oxford, R. L., Lavine, R. Z., & Crookall, D. (1989). Language learning strategies, the communicative approach, and their classroom implications. Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 29-39. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msvu.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca/docview/1311689807?accountid=12617
Pandit, N. (1996). The creation of theory: A recent application of the grounded theory method. The Qualitative Report, 2(4), 1-15. Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article
Park, G. P., & Lee, H. W. (2006). The characteristics of effective English teacher as perceived by high school teachers and students in Korea. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 236-248. doi:10.1007/BF0301547
Peacock, M. (2001). Match or dis match? Learning style and teaching styles in EFL. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11(1), 1-20. doi: 10.1111/1473-4192.00001
Phakiti, A. (2006). Theoretical and pedagogical issues in ESL/EFL teaching of strategic reading. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 1, 19-50. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Aek_Phakiti/publication/228660692_Theoretical_and_pedagogical_issues_in_ESLEFL_teaching_of_strategic_reading/links/004635376b2442eeb9000000.pdf
Pica, T. (2000). Tradition and transition in English language teaching methodology. System, 28(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00057-3
Polkinghome, D. E. (2005). Language and meaning: data collection in qualitative research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(2), 137-145. doi:10.1037/10022-018.104.22.168
Pop, C., & Golub, J. (2000). Preparing tomorrow’s English language Arts teachers today: Principles and practices for infusing technology. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 1(1), 89-97. Retrieved from http://www.citejournal.org/vol1/iss1/currentissues/english/article1.ht
mPoskams, T. (1999). Chinese EFL students’ attitudes to peer feedback and peer assessment in an extended pair work setting. RELC Journal, 30(1), 79-123. doi: 10.1177/003368829903000105
Rababah, G. (2002). Communication problems facing Arab learners of English. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED473079.pdf
Rahman, M. M., & Alhaisoni, E. (2013). Teaching English in Saudi Arabia: Prospects and challenges. Academic Research International, 4(1), 112-181. Retrieved from crawl.prod.proquest.com.s3.amazonaws.com/fpcache/351b557c5677d13601988dd22462e7f5.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJF7V7KNV2KKY2NUQ&Expires=1458515596&Signature=HTPZAchAHqQ0qdWuUaG8Y2REDvw%3D
Rao, Z. (2013). Teaching English as a foreign language in China: Looking back and forward. English Today, 29, 34-39. doi:10.1017/S0266078413000291. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40171552?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Rao, Z. (1996). Reconciling communicative approaches to the teaching of English with traditional Chinese methods. Research in the Teaching of English, 30(4), 458-471.
Richards, L., & Morse, J. M. (2013). Read me first for a user’s guide to qualitative methods. Washington DC: Sage publication.
Roskams, T. (1999). Chinese EFL students’ attitudes to peer feedback and peer assessment in an extended pair work settings. A Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 30(1), 79-123. doi: 10.1177/003368829903000105
Rubin, H., & Rubin, I. (2011). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data. Sage. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Santor, D. A., Messervey, D., & Kusumakar, V. (2000). Measuring peer pressure, popularity, and conformity in adolescent boys and girls: Predicting school performance, sexual attitudes, and substance abuse. Journal of youth and adolescence, 29(2), 163-182. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1005152515264
Savignon, S. J. (Ed.). (2008). Interpreting communicative language teaching: Contexts and concerns in teacher education. London: Yale University Press.
Savignon, S. J., & Wang, C. (2003). Commutative language teaching in EFL contexts: Learner attitude and perceptions. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 42(3), 223-249. doi: 10.1515/iral.2003.010
Scholl, N., & Hornberger, N. (2008). Encyclopedia of language and education. New York, NY: Springer.
Shaabaan, K. & Ghaith, G. (2005). The theoretical relevance and efficacy of using cooperative learning in the ESL/EFL classroom. TESL Reporter, 38(2), 14-28. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.ca/scholar?hl
Shahmohammadi, N. (2013). Review on the impact of teachers’ behaviour on students’ self-regulation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 130-135. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.672
Shank, G., & Brown, L. (2007). Exploring educational research literacy. New York: Routledge.
Shawer, S. (2013). Preparing adult educators: The need to develop communicative language level instructors. Journal of Literacy Research, 45(4) 431-464. doi: 10.1177/1086296X13504868
Shefi, Y. (2015). The contribution of teacher-student relationships to perseverance, dropout prevention and motivation for change in students’ attitudes in “second chance” high
school. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 209, 470-475. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.255
Sherman, R. R., & Webb, R. B. (1988). Qualitative research in education: Focus and methods. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Siddiqui, O. (2014). Winds of change: English teaching in Saudi Arabia. Arab News, Retrieved from http://www.arabnews.com/news/567896
Sicam, F. P. M., & Lucas, R. I. G. (2016). Language attitudes of adolescent Filipino bilingual learners towards English and Filipino. Asian Englishes, 1-20.doi:
Silva, D. (2013). Comparing the teaching of culture in ESL/EFL classrooms (Master’s thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (UMI No. 1560883)
Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571-581. doi: 10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1241
Smith, A. N. (1971). The importance of attitude in foreign language learning. Modern Language Journal, 55(2), 82-88. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.msvu.ca/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=0a0ad3ef-a13b-428f-9486-0d9c958d95e4%40sessionmgr4003&vid=2&hid=4001
Smith, J. (2007). Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books
Snape, D., & Spencer, L. (2003). The foundations of qualitative research. In J. Ritchie & J. Lewis, Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. Retrieved from http://www.sxf.uevora.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Ritchie_2003.pdf
Soureshjani, K. H., & Naseri, N. (2011). An investigation into the relationship between self-esteem, proficiency level, and the reading ability of Iranian EFL language learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(6), 1312-1319. doi:10.4304/jltr.2.6.1312-1319.
Spada, N. (2007). Communicative languages teaching: Current status and future prospects. In J. Cummins, C. Davison (Ed.), International handbook of English language teaching. Vol. 15 ( pp. 271-288). doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-46301-8_20
Storch, N., & Wigglesworth, G. (2003). Is there a role for the use of the L1 in an L2 settings? TESOL Quarterly, 37(4) 760-770. doi: 10.2307/3588224
Strambi, A., & Bouvet, E. J. (2003). Flexibility and interaction at a distance: A mixed-model environment for language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 7(3), 81-102. Retrieved from http://llt.msu.edu/vol7num3/strambi
Suddaby, R. (2006). From the editors: what grounded theory is not. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4), 633-642. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2006.22083020
Sugino, T. (2010). Teacher demotivational factors in the Japanese language teaching context. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 216-226. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.036
Thomas, D. R. (2006). A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American journal of evaluation, 27(2), 237-246. doi:10.11771/1098214005283748
Tschannen-Moran, M., H., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. American Educational Research Association, 68(2) 202-248. doi: 10.3102/00346543068002202
Tseng, M. C. (2013). The Relationship between Attitudes toward Foreign Culture and English Proficiency Level in Taiwanese Students of English as a Foreign Language. Studies in English Language Teaching, 1(2), 264. Retrieved from http://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/selt/article/view/91
Tulis, M. (2013). Error management behavior in classrooms: teachers’ responses to student mistakes. Teaching and Teacher Education, 33, 56-68. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2013.02.003
Ulug, M., Ozden, M. S., & Erylimaz, A. (2011). The effects of the teachers’ attitudes on students’ personality and performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 30, 738-742. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.144
Vernier, S., Barbuzza, S., Del Giusti, S., & Del Moral, G. (2008). The five language skills in the EFL classroom. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Retrieved from http://bdigital.uncu.edu. ar/objetos_digitales/2647/vernieryotrosfivelanguageskills.pdf
Wang, B. (2009). Motivational and language learning. Asian Social Science, 5(1), 98-100. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ass.v5n1p98
Wei, M., Brok, P., & Zhou, Y. (2007). Teacher interpersonal behavior and students and student achievement in English language as a foreign language classroom in China. Learning Environments Research, 12(3), 157-174. doi: 10.1007/510984-0099050-6
Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation middle school: the role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Education Psychology, 90(2), 202-209. doi: 10.137/0022-06126.96.36.199
Wu, X. (2003). Intrinsic motivation and young language learners: The impact of the classroom environment. System, 31(4), 501-517. doi:10.1016/j.system.2003.04.001.
Yin, R. (2011). Qualitative research: From start to finish. New York: The Guilford Press.
Yoon, B. (2008). Uninvited guests: The influence of teachers’ roles and pedagogies on the positioning of English language learners in the regular classroom. American Educational research Journal, 45(2), 495-522. doi: 10.3102/0002831208316200
Zanghar, A. (2012). Instrumental and integrative motivation among undergraduate Libyan students of English as a foreign language (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://dspace.library.colostate.edu/handle/10217/75302
Copyright (c) 2018 Nagah Awad Alzaharani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).